bones

Temporohyoid Osteoarthropathy (THO)

Temporohyoid osteoarthopathy (THO) results in bone thickening and the eventual fusion of the temporohyoid joint to the skull, potentially causing pain and nerve deficits.

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degeneration of cartilage that can be precipitated by repetitive trauma, historical fractures or other injuries, and/or poor conformation.