The Center for Equine Health has access to the largest group of equine specialists and researchers available anywhere. Our expertise spans the breadth of clinical and basic science disciplines that apply to the horse. Although all health and performance problems qualify for study, our research priorities currently focus on the areas listed below.
- Anesthetic and medication safety
UC Davis researchers are working to improve medication use and safety in horses and evaluate anesthetic combinations that enhance the quality of recovery from anesthesia. This work advances our understanding of pharmacology and opens new avenues for treatment and prevention of disease.
Current studies have increased our understanding about safer inhalant anesthetics for equine surgeries, and projects are underway to investigate improved methods for standing sedation. Other work in this area supports the Kenneth L. Maddy Equine Analytical Chemistry Laboratory to establish drug thresholds and monitor medication use.
- Colic Prevention and Treatment
While significant advances have been made in abdominal surgery, postoperative treatment and intensive care for horses over the past 20 years, colic is still considered the most common cause of death in adult horses and accounts for a large proportion of emergencies for horse owners and veterinarians. However, advances in colic surgery and postoperative management have improved the survival of horses with strangulating obstructions from 50% to 80%.
The Comparative Gastrointestinal Laboratory at UC Davis has been one of the leading research groups to improve the survival of horses with colic. Our lab has published over 100 publications in the areas of gastric ulceration, diagnosis of horses with colic that require surgery, prevention of ischemic reperfusion injuries, medications to increase gastrointestinal motility, and new surgical techniques.
- Equine Infectious Diseases
Infectious communicable diseases pose one of the major threats to worldwide health in the 21st century. Currently, the capacity of many infectious organisms to adapt and mutate far exceeds the medical community's ability to respond with new strategies for control. The resilience of these pathogenic microbes, combined with the rapidity with which humans and horses currently circumvent the globe, present today's biomedical scientists with a difficult challenge.
The Bernice Barbour Communicable Disease Laboratory at UC Davis investigates pathogens and their interactions with hosts and their environment. Researchers in this lab come from varying disciplines to study the range of mechanisms used by microbes to cause disease in an effort to implement new and more effective methods of control.
- Equine PET Scanner
In 2016, the UC Davis veterinary hospital acquired a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner, becoming the first veterinary facility in the world to utilize the imaging technology for equine patients. The unit was acquired for research and clinical studies on lameness diagnosis in horses.
While most other imaging techniques provide “morphological” information (identifying changes in size, shape or density of structures), PET is a “functional” imaging technique, observing activity at the molecular level and detecting changes in the tissue before the size or shape is modified. Once morphological changes have occurred, PET can tell whether the changes are still active.
PET capabilities for equine imaging include:
• identify small areas of bone remodeling at the attachment of tendons or ligaments that can be missed with other modalities
• show increased activity in bone adjacent to joints, where degenerative changes are known to occur, before morphological changes are present
• reveal increased activity in some joint fragments compared to others that are “quiet”
• demonstrate that some areas of bone proliferation are active, whereas others are quiescent
In order to confirm these findings and further define the role of PET in lameness imaging, UC Davis will launch a clinical trial in the fall of 2016. Horses likely to benefit from enrollment in the trial are:
• horses for which other advanced imaging modalities (MRI, CT or nuclear scintigraphy) have failed to identify the cause of the lameness
• horses for which the results of other imaging modalities are confusing due to the presence of multiple abnormalities or equivocal findings
PET has also shown great promises in evaluating soft tissue lesions, in particular regarding laminitis and tendon lesions. Research studies gathering further information in these specific areas will commence shortly at UC Davis. As more data becomes available, additional clinical trials will likely develop.
- Equine reproduction
UC Davis has a long and productive history of advancing knowledge in equine -reproduction:• Fertility problems in mares and stallions
• Assisted reproduction
• Embryo transfer
• Transvaginal follicular aspiration
• High-risk pregnancy management
• Hormonal profiles of pregnancy and the role of progesterone
• Management of uterine infection
Routine and advanced reproductive services are provided by the Equine Reproduction Service at the UC Davis veterinary hospital.
- Equine Welfare
The Center for Equine Health has established an endowment for animal rescue and disaster medicine that focuses on developing improved techniques for the rescue of large animals during natural disasters. The Fall 2014 Horse Report provides a template for communities to organize and integrate with their local and state Office of Emergency Services in the event of a natural disaster so that horses and other large animals are included in disaster plans.
Other resource materials available to the public include:
• Guidelines for use by animal control officers to assist in the assessment of neglected horses
• Guidelines for establishing horse sanctuaries and rescue facilities to ensure the humane care and treatment of animals
The fund also supports research into various medical conditions of the animals and the development of improved treatment regimens.
- Genetic Basis of Disease
Genetic studies are conducted to advance our understanding of complex diseases such as:
• Chronic progressive lymphedema (CPL)
• Early onset melanoma in gray horses
• Equine cerebellar abiotrophy (CA)
• Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA)
• Neuroaxonal dystrophy/equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (NAD/EDM)
Some of these diseases manifest at an early age and progress throughout the horse's life. Others, like HERDA and CPL, may not be revealed until horses are older. Successful management, treatment and prevention require thorough characterization of the disease, investigations into the pathogenic mechanisms and identification of early diagnostic tools.
Researchers and clinicians collaborate to advance imaging capabilities with the goal of improving the detection of early lesions. Their work includes:
• Tracking mesenchymal stem cell distribution following various routes of administration
• Developing specialized radiographic views to detect occult body lesions and joint abnormalities
• Using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to map fluid changes in soft tissue structures that support the equine limb
Hoof injuries can be devastating for horses that develop laminitis, an inflammation of the support structures of the hoof. Since these hooves support upwards of 1,000 pounds and horses cannot be on "bed rest", injuries such as stepping on a nail can become catastrophic. Laminitis claims about 75% of affected horses, and there is much about the disease that veterinarians still do not understand.
The Center for Equine Health helped fund a study that resulted in the successful use of the sEH inhibitor t-TUCB as an analgesic adjunct in a horse with laminitis that was not responding to NSAIDs and gabapentin therapy. A remarkable reduction in pain scores occurred after pharmacological inhibition of sEH with t-TUCB. Further investigations are underway to test this and other forms of treatment and to better understand the underlying cellular factors associated with laminitis.
Studies are currently being planned to investigate the underlying cellular changes that precede laminitis, with the goal of developing better preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic options for this disease.
- Orthopedics and Lameness
Like human athletes, performance horses suffer from a wide variety of injuries that are unique to their particular discipline. UC Davis researchers are working to advance diagnostic and therapeutic options for performance horses to minimize injury and maximize performance and longevity. Areas of research include:
• Scientific validation of complementary medicine
• Use of objective lameness assessment to augment lameness detection
• Advanced imaging techniques to improve injury detection and early intervention
• Evaluation of the effect of arena footing on suspensory apparatus strain
• Identification of common areas of joint stress and response to medication
• Evaluation of new methods for fracture repair and bone stabilization
- Neonatology and Diseases in Foals
UC Davis has led the nation in neonatal medicine and care. Research funded by the Center for Equine Health includes a study on equine neonatal maladjustment (“dummy foal syndrome”) and a study of the cerebrospinal fluid of foals affected with neuroaxonal dystrophy/equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy, a neurological disorder that affects foals at 4 to 6 months of age. Further studies in each of these areas are needed.
Studies have also been completed to evaluate safe and effective doses for chloramphenicol, a commonly used broad-spectrum antibiotic, in foals and to establish normal triglyceride levels. This work advances the evaluation and treatment of neonatal foals presenting to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).
This critical area is underfunded at this time and donations to support needed research could make a difference to the health and well-being of foals.
Research is being conducted on various conditions that produce neurologic impairment in horses:
• Improving the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM)
• Managing cervical degenerative joint disease
• Advancing our understanding of the neurological form of equine herpesvirus-1
• Continuing studies on neuroaxonal dystrophy/equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (NAD/EDM)
- Regenerative medicine
The regenerative medicine program at UC Davis was established in 2007 and has been evolving rapidly. The initial emphasis of the program was to target the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for orthopedic repair in horses, including bone healing and tendon and ligament repair. Since that time, research and clinical teams have been developed in both equine and small animal medicine working in the following areas:
Tissue engineering - heart valve replacement; small vessel repair; cartilage repair
Liver disease - tracking stem cells to the liver; evaluating stem cells for the treatment of portosystemic shunt in dogs
Oral disease - mandibular (jaw) repair and the treatment of chronic, severe oral inflammatory diseases in cats
Spinal cord injury - a unique "neural" stem cell derived from canine skin is isolated, expanded and used to treat dogs with spinal cord injury
Ophthalmic disease - inflammatory and immune-mediated eye diseases in dogs and horses
Gastrointestinal disease - inflammatory bowel disease in dogs
Wound healing - MSCs embedded in matrix to augment wound healing in horses
Laminitis - MSCs increase blood flow and decrease inflammation. These qualities constitute a promising therapy for diseases such as laminitis. Studies are needed to determine what type of stem cells are best for treating laminitis, how best to administer the cells, and how they heal this unique tissue.
Infectious, inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases in horses - MSCs are being investigated for the treatment of sepsis and pulmonary diseases in humans, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
- Silicate-Associated Osteoporosis
Horses are uniquely susceptible to an osteoporotic condition that is coupled with respiratory silicosis. The combination of the bone and respiratory disease is called silicate-associated osteoporosis (SAO), or bone fragility syndrome. Equine respiratory silicosis is similar to the human form that is known as an occupational hazard of miners. In horses, silicosis develops from inhalation of dust derived from soils with high silicate contents, particularly in the Monterey, Carmel, Napa, and Sonoma regions. Once in the lungs, the crystals cannot be cleared and cause lifelong disease in horses and people. Affected horses develop severe osteoporosis that leads to debilitating and progressive deformities and fractures. We are working with veterinarians from affected regions to increase our understanding of this devastating disease.
Research funding is always needed. If you would like to help support research in an area that is of particular interest to you and your horse, please contact Dr. Carrie Finno at (530) 752-6433 or firstname.lastname@example.org.